Bugged By Gout

Xanthine oxidase reduction by quercetin fascinates me.

Xanthine Oxide Reducing Insect

Xanthine Oxide Reducing Insect

Can tea, onions, apples and other foods hold the secret for natural gout cures? Lots of scientists are looking, but extracting the active ingredients is hard.

This is really bugging me! But, could bugs be the answer?

Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid group of compounds. These compounds occur naturally in plants, and have been shown to have properties that are beneficial to health.

Quercetin has been studied in several recent investigations to assess it’s ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO). Both allopurinol and febuxostat work by XO inhibition.

Unfortunately, the quercetin studies are largely confined to laboratory experiments with occasional animal tests. Animal tests so far have not shown success, and this appears to be down to solubility of quercetin.

Just as I thought I had finished reviewing relevant research, I spotted a mention of quercetin buried deep in a study of large cabbage white caterpillars. So deep, that I cannot assess if quercetin is actually relevant, but it does not matter – the abstract is fascinating.

A comparison of extracts from the tronchuda cabbage (Portuguese kale) with extracts from caterpillers feeding off it reveals some startling chemistry. The caterpillar extract is far more effective than extracts from the plant on which it feeds. The authors of “Pieris brassicae Inhibits Xanthine Oxidase” conclude:-

This is the first time that an insect has been tested for its xanthine oxidase inhibitory capacity, which proved to be very high. These findings are interesting considering that they can be used by food or pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of their products, to increase the dietary supply of antioxidants, or for prevention of free radical-mediated diseases, namely, gout.

Grub up!

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3 thoughts on “Bugged By Gout

  1. I have also read about quercetin and, in fact, have bought some bottles of quercetin+bromelain capsules. However, I have read that quercetin is insoluble in water which means that the human body can hardly absorb it. It is soluble in alcohol but it requires pretty large amounts of alcohol and this three times a day. Literature also says it is soluble in alkaline solution but I failed with solving quercetin powder in a solution I made from baking soda. Does this mean it is senseless taking quercetin?

    I have read about quercetin chalcone (“Aller DMG”, “Allergy Support Plus”, “Quercenase”) which is water-soluble and wonder whether this helps. Could not find any information on the internet so far.

  2. I’m bringing all the quercetin discussion here, prior to summarizing for new reference page(s)

    This table is an extract from the USDA flavonoids database (release 2.1) showing all quercetin values (excluding zero values).

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                  Food Description                                  |  Value   |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea leaves, green, dry, decaffeinated                                              |   263.95 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea leaves, black, dry, decaffeinated                                              |   256.02 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Capers, raw                                                                        |   233.84 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea leaves, green, dry                                                             |   223.97 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea leaves, black, dry                                                             |   199.75 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Capers, canned                                                                     |   172.55 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lovage, leaves, raw                                                                |      170 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea leaves, oolong, dry                                                            |   108.83 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Elderberry juice concentrate                                                       |   108.16 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Dock leaves, raw                                                                   |     86.2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Radish leaves, raw                                                                 |    70.37 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Chokeberry juice concentrate                                                       |    68.17 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Carob fiber [Caromax]                                                              |    58.13 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Dill weed, fresh                                                                   |    55.15 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Coriander [cilantro] leaves, raw                                                   |     52.9 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, hot, yellow wax, raw                                                      |    50.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Fennel, leaves, raw                                                                |     48.8 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Elderberries, raw                                                                  |       42 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Carob flour                                                                        |    38.78 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, red, raw                                                                   |    33.43 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Hartwort, leaves                                                                   |     29.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, ancho                                                                     |     27.6 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Corn poppy, leaves                                                                 |     26.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Nalta jute, raw                                                                    |    24.88 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                                      |    24.36 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Okra, raw                                                                          |    24.26 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Hawthorn leaves, raw                                                               |     24.1 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Buckwheat                                                                          |    23.09 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Blackberry juice concentrate                                                       |    22.85 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, raw                                                                        |    21.42 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Bee Pollen                                                                         |    20.95 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened                                                     |    20.13 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apple, skin only                                                                   |    19.36 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, spring or scallions [includes tops and bulb], raw                          |    18.33 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Bog whortleberries, wild, frozen                                                   |     17.7 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cowpeas, common [blackeyes, crowder, southern], mature seeds, raw                  |    17.22 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cranberry juice, raw                                                               |    16.41 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Annual sow-thistle, leaves                                                         |       16 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, serrano, raw                                                              |    15.98 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cranberries, raw                                                                   |    15.09 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Buckwheat, bran                                                                    |     14.9 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, sweet, raw                                                                 |     14.8 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, hot chili, green, raw                                                     |     14.7 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peas, green, raw                                                                   |    14.27 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lingonberries [cowberries], raw                                                    |    12.97 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onion, spring, red, leaves                                                         |     12.6 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plums, black diamond, with peel, raw                                               |    12.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Asparagus, raw                                                                     |     12.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Greek greens pie [prepared from wild greens]                                       |     12.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lettuce, red leaf, raw                                                             |    11.99 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Sweet potato leaves, raw                                                           |    11.57 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tarragon, fresh                                                                    |       10 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Chokeberry, raw                                                                    |      8.9 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Kale, raw                                                                          |     7.71 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Asparagus, cooked, boiled, drained                                                 |     7.61 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Watercress, raw                                                                    |     7.44 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Rowanberries, raw                                                                  |      7.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Oregano, fresh                                                                     |      7.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, white, raw                                                                 |     7.29 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Buckwheat groats, roasted, dry                                                     |     7.16 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Arugula, raw                                                                       |     6.95 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, long yellow, raw                                                          |     6.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Olive leaves, raw                                                                  |     6.24 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lettuce, green leaf, raw                                                           |     5.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, chinese [pak-choi], raw                                                   |     5.58 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Currants, European black, raw                                                      |     5.55 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Crowberries, raw                                                                   |     5.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Yardlong bean, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                               |      5.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, jalapeno, raw                                                             |     5.07 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Blueberries, raw                                                                   |     5.05 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Prickly pears, raw                                                                 |     4.86 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Chicory greens, raw                                                                |     4.82 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Chives, raw                                                                        |     4.77 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Red Delicious, with peel, raw                                              |      4.7 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Blueberries, frozen, unsweetened                                                   |     4.64 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Gala, with peel, raw                                                       |     4.57 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Pears, raw                                                                         |     4.51 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cranberries, dried, sweetened                                                      |      4.5 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Kale, canned                                                                       |      4.5 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lettuce, cos or romaine, raw                                                       |     4.49 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, raspberry                                                      |      4.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, raw, with skin                                                             |     4.27 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomato products, canned, puree, without salt added                                 |     4.12 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Spinach, raw                                                                       |     4.11 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Crowberry juice                                                                    |     3.88 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Carob kibbles                                                                      |     3.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plums, raw                                                                         |     3.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Locust bean powder                                                                 |     3.33 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Granny Smith, with peel, raw                                               |     3.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cherries, sweet, canned, water-pack, drained                                       |      3.2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Spices, bay leaf                                                                   |     3.19 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Buckwheat flour, whole-groat                                                       |     3.15 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Arctic bramble berries                                                             |      3.1 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                          |     3.09 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Bilberry, raw                                                                      |     3.04 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, yellow, raw                                                           |     3.03 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cherries, sour, red, raw                                                           |     2.92 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, green, raw                                                            |     2.88 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Taro, raw                                                                          |     2.87 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Golden Delicious, with peel, raw                                           |     2.81 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, green, brewed, decaffeinated                                                  |     2.77 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, cherry, raw                                                              |     2.76 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, black, brewed, prepared with tap water, decaffeinated                         |     2.74 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lettuce, butterhead [includes boston and bibb types], raw                          |     2.73 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, green, brewed                                                                 |     2.69 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Currants, white, raw                                                               |     2.68 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cherries, sweet, raw                                                               |     2.64 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Chard, Swiss, raw                                                                  |     2.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapes, black                                                                      |     2.54 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tree Spinach                                                                       |     2.54 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broccoli, raw                                                                      |     2.51 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, cayenne, raw                                                              |     2.48 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Mulberries, raw                                                                    |     2.47 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, sweet, green, raw                                                         |      2.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broccoli, frozen, chopped, unprepared                                              |      2.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, cascabella, raw                                                           |      2.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cranberry sauce, canned, sweetened                                                 |      2.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broccoli raab, raw                                                                 |     2.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plum, yellow, whole, raw                                                           |     2.21 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plums, purple, raw                                                                 |     2.19 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, red                                               |     2.16 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apricots, raw                                                                      |     2.08 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Fuji, raw                                                                  |     2.02 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Mizuna [Japanese mustard]                                                          |     2.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broadbeans, immature seeds, raw                                                    |        2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Applesauce, canned, unsweetened, without added ascorbic acid                       |        2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, black, brewed, prepared with tap water                                        |     1.99 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plum, red, whole, raw                                                              |     1.85 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Plums, dried                                                                       |      1.8 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Blackberries, raw                                                                  |     1.76 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alfalfa seeds, sprouted, raw                                                       |      1.7 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, green, brewed, flavored                                                       |     1.69 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, russet, flesh and skin, raw                                              |     1.65 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapes, white or green, raw                                                        |     1.62 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lemons, raw, without peel                                                          |     1.52 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, green, canned, regular pack, drained solids                           |     1.49 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomato juice, canned, without salt added                                           |     1.46 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw                                                          |     1.46 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, baked                                               |     1.43 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lettuce, iceberg [includes crisphead types], raw                                   |     1.42 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapes, red, raw                                                                   |     1.38 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, sweet, yellow, raw                                                        |     1.35 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, oolong, brewed                                                                |      1.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, green, frozen, all styles, unprepared                                 |      1.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cranberry juice cocktail, bottled                                                  |     1.27 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beans, snap, green, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained without salt                   |     1.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Raspberries, raw                                                                   |     1.23 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Gooseberries, raw                                                                  |     1.23 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, baked                                             |     1.19 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Black Currant Juice                                                                |     1.15 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Strawberries, raw                                                                  |     1.14 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Raspberries, red, frozen                                                           |      1.1 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Queen Anne's Lace, leaves, raw                                                     |      1.1 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broccoli raab, cooked                                                              |     1.05 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lingonberry juice                                                                  |     1.02 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Parsnips, raw                                                                      |     0.99 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, raw, without skin                                                          |     0.96 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Figs, raw                                                                          |     0.93 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Dates, deglet noor                                                                 |     0.93 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Sauce, pasta, spaghetti/marinara, ready-to-serve                                   |     0.91 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, Chinese, choi-sum, raw                                                    |      0.9 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapefruit juice, white, canned, unsweetened                                       |      0.9 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, instant, unsweetened, powder, prepared                                        |     0.87 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Catsup                                                                             |     0.86 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potato, flesh and skin, raw                                                        |     0.84 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cauliflower, frozen, unprepared                                                    |     0.83 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Currants, red, raw                                                                 |     0.75 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, black, ready-to-drink, plain and flavored                                     |     0.74 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked                                            |     0.73 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Turnip greens, raw                                                                 |     0.73 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, black, ready-to-drink, diet, plain and flavored                               |     0.72 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, apricot                                                        |     0.71 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, red, ripe, cooked                                                        |      0.7 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Nectarines, raw                                                                    |     0.69 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Vinegar, cider [Germany]                                                           |     0.68 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peaches, raw                                                                       |     0.68 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cauliflower, raw                                                                   |     0.66 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Squash, summer, zucchini, includes skin, raw                                       |     0.66 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, raw                                                 |     0.65 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grape juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added vitamin C               |     0.64 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, plum                                                           |     0.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, wine, berry, colored                                           |     0.63 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apple juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added ascorbic acid           |     0.62 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Orange juice, chilled, includes from concentrate                                   |     0.61 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Bilberry soup                                                                      |      0.6 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, instant, decaffeinated, prepared                                              |      0.6 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cloudberries, raw                                                                  |      0.6 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average                                       |     0.59 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Oranges, raw, all commercial varieties                                             |     0.58 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broadbeans [fava beans], mature seeds, canned                                      |     0.55 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Golden Delicious, without peel, raw                                        |     0.53 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Perilla leaves, raw                                                                |     0.53 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Honey, mixed varieties [samples obtained in Australia, Italy, Portugaul and Spain] |     0.51 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lime juice, raw                                                                    |     0.51 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, Californian [purchased in Hungary]                                        |     0.51 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapefruit, raw [not specified as to color]                                        |      0.5 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, whole, regular pack                                   |      0.5 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, raw                                               |     0.49 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apple cider [European]                                                             |     0.48 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Squash, summer, zucchini, includes skin, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt     |     0.47 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Strawberries, frozen, unsweetened                                                  |     0.46 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, strawberry                                                     |     0.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peaches, white, whole, raw                                                         |     0.45 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Apples, Red Delicious, without peel, raw                                           |     0.41 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Limes, raw                                                                         |      0.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Kohlrabi, raw                                                                      |      0.4 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Celery, raw                                                                        |     0.39 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, red, raw                                                                  |     0.38 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Nectarines, white, whole, raw                                                      |     0.37 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Lemon juice, raw                                                                   |     0.37 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Nuts, almonds                                                                      |     0.36 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grape juice, white                                                                 |     0.36 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, instant, sweetened with sugar, plain and flavored, prepared                   |     0.34 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Parsley, raw                                                                       |     0.33 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapefruit, raw, pink and red, all areas                                           |     0.33 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, peach                                                          |     0.32 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Carrots, raw                                                                       |     0.31 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Brussels sprouts, raw                                                              |      0.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, chinese [pak-choi], cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                 |      0.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, habanero, raw                                                             |      0.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, raw                                                                       |      0.3 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tangerine juice, raw                                                               |     0.29 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Horseradish, root, whole                                                           |     0.28 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Orange juice, raw                                                                  |     0.27 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Star apple, raw                                                                    |     0.26 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Raisins, seedless                                                                  |     0.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, sweet, red, raw                                                           |     0.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, instant, diet, prepared                                                       |     0.25 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tea, green, ready-to-drink                                                         |     0.21 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, yellow, raw                                                              |     0.21 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Broccoli, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                                    |     0.21 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Oranges, raw, navels                                                               |      0.2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, wine, berry, white                                             |      0.2 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Water spinach                                                                      |     0.18 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Celeriac, raw                                                                      |     0.18 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Crown daisy, leaves                                                                |     0.16 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peas, green, frozen, unprepared                                                    |     0.15 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Soup, tomato, canned, condensed, commercial                                        |     0.14 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Beets, raw                                                                         |     0.13 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peas, green, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                         |     0.12 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Milk, chocolate, fluid, commercial, reduced fat                                    |     0.12 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Garlic chives, raw                                                                 |     0.12 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peas, green, canned, regular pack, drained solids                                  |     0.11 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Leeks, [bulb and lower leaf-portion], raw                                          |      0.1 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, white                                             |     0.09 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Peppers, tabasco, raw                                                              |     0.09 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Rutabagas, raw                                                                     |     0.08 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Kale, Chinese, raw                                                                 |     0.07 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Coffee, brewed from grounds, prepared with tap water                               |     0.05 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Grapefruit juice, white, raw                                                       |     0.05 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cucumber, with peel, raw                                                           |     0.04 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Gourd, dishcloth [towelgourd], raw                                                 |     0.03 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Tomatoes, plum, raw                                                                |     0.03 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all                                             |     0.02 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Onions, young green, tops only                                                     |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Taro leaves, raw                                                                   |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Alcoholic beverage, wine, sherry                                                   |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, grape                                                          |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt                                     |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Cabbage, chinese [pe-tsai], raw                                                    |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Jams and preserves, guava                                                          |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Sweet potato, raw, unprepared                                                      |     0.01 |
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
  3. Quercetin and Red Wine

    The study that mentioned red wine was “Flow injection determination of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and its application to food samples”, and the reference to red wine was so insignificant that I nearly discarded it as irrelevant. Then I read how several natural compounds compared to allopurinol as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Chief amongst these is quercetin, though it’s more effective cousin apigenin, is also very interesting.

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